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THE ARTISTIC ROUTE BETWEEN INDIA & PERSIA

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Prachtig mooi concert van onze wijkbewoner uit Laak Satyakam Mohkamsing met een middag vol klassiek Indiase muziek i.s.m. Ilyas Nadjafi en Tarrang Poddor.In Indiase muziek hebben bepaalde instrumenten Perzische wortels en zijn teksten van liederen gebaseerd op soefi-poëzie. Indiase klassieke muziek met een oude Vedische achtergrond bevatten zelfs Perzische soefi-artistieke elementen.
In dit concert van Indiase klassieke muziek en soefi-poëzie zal de integratie tussen Perzië en India zich via verschillende genres ontvouwen.

Dhrupad, Khayāl and Tantakāri

Dhrupad
Dhrupad is considered to be the oldest and most disciplined of the Hindustani music genres. The origin of  dhrupad is linked to the recitation of the Sama Veda, the sacred Sanskrit text. Dhrupad is the oldest vocal and  instrumental style, and the form from which North Indian classical music originated. The continuity of dhrupad,  a contemplative and meditative form, has been sustained by traditions of devotional music and worship. Indeed,  the leading dhrupad maestros remark that rather than to entertain the audience, dhrupad's purpose is aradhana which means to worship. The nature of dhrupad music is spiritual, seeking not to entertain but to induce deep  feelings of peace and contemplation in the listener.

The word dhrupad comes from dhruva (fixed, steadfast) and pada (word, composition). Dhrupad evolved from  the earlier chanting of “Om”, the sacred syllable/ mantra which is claimed in the Hindu religion to be the canon  to be the source of all creation. Later, the rhythmic chanting of the Vedic scriptures evolved into singing. One  significant characteristic of dhrupad is the emphasis on maintaining purity of the rāgas and the swaras (notes).  According to some accounts, dhrupad was sung in temples, the singer facing the divinity. The compositions  were prayers addressed to Hindu gods. Later dhrupad evolved into a highly sophisticated and complex musical  form, while still retaining its sacred character. The language of composition also changed from Sanskrit to  Brijbhasha, over the period between the 12th and the 16th centuries. A major part of the compositions being  sung nowadays were written in the 16th century and later. In the 15th century, dhrupad music came to be  patronized by the royal courts and its complex rendering was directed to highly sophisticated royal audiences.  Among other topics, a number of compositions were written in praise of emperors. 

The formal structure of a Dhrupad performance consists out of ālāp, jod, jhālā followed by a pada (composition).

The ālāp is an interlude in the form of a slow movement. There is no rhythmic pulse in the ālāp, the progression  of the ālāp exists out of movements of approaching the notes according to the rules of the rāga. In Dhrupad vilambit(slow) ālāp is used which slowly delineates the rāga with minimum ornamentation necessary.
In the Dhrupad ālāp there is a progression of ascending and descending where every note of the rāga gets a specific treatment which shows how the note(s) can be approached based on the rāga. The progression of ālāp is followed by the jod. The progression of jod is the same as in ālāp only now there is a  pulse in the melody. After the jod comes the part of jhālā, which is similar to jod but performed in double speed and the rhythmical element in this melody becomes stronger meaning that the pulse in the melody starts to  dominate. 

The ālāp, jod and jhālā in Dhrupad is sung using this set of syllables: a re ne na, te te re ne na, ri re re ne na , te  ne toom na, popularity thought to be derived from a mantra. 
The progression of the interlude is followed by a composition/ pada with rhythmic accompaniment provided on the pakhāvaj. The improvisation by the singer exists out of repeating the text of the composition in different  progressive tempi, also known as layakāri; a way of playful manipulating the rhythm. Then another progressive  form of improvisation is bolbānt which is a rhythmic variation with the text of the song.

Dhrupad is also performed on the pluck instrument called the Veena, the discussion always remains whether  dhrupad singing is influenced by the Veena or the Veena influenced the singing style, because the formal  performance structures of singing and playing the Veena are the same. Now it is generally accepted that Jod and  Jhālā are invented through the Veena and the compositions were composed by the singers since lyrics of the  compositions can only be sung through the voice. Because Jod and especially Jhālā create stress on the voice, it  seems likely that the Veena has been designed to make these fast rhythmic (“instrumental”) variations possible. This also implies to the way the volume of resonance on the Veena increases; it sounds very much like the  expanding sound production of Dhrupad singing of ālāp, jod and jhālā as an imitation of the Veena.

Khayāl

The emerge of khayāl can be traced back to the 12th century when Islam was gradually growing in India. In this  period khayāl’s origin may have been attributed to the poet, composer and established musician: Amir Khusrau  (1253- 1325). Khusrau was a polyglot knowing Persian, Arabic and the Indian languages. Khusrau as a musician  had great affinity with Indian and Persian music and studied Indian music through different parts of India.  Legend, speculations and scattered commentary suggest the rapid change and fusion of Persian-Arabic and  Indian musical systems during his lifetime.

For khayāl, the first musical evidence of court support is noted at the Delhi darbar (court) of the eighteenth  century Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah Rangile (ruled 1720-48), where the musicians Nyamat Khan  (Sadarang) and Firoz Khan (Adarang) composed songs that have been transmitted to the present time. It is  believed that Sadarang and Adarang also formalized the structure of modern day khayāl. As khayāl continued to  evolve in the courts throughout North India, distinct performing styles emerged into different styles known as:  gharanas.

The formal structure of khayāl consists out of an aochar, vilambit / madhya / drut laya . The aochar is a brief interlude that introduces the rāga; a short ālāp.

After the aochar, the bandish (composition) starts which will be under accompaniment of the tabla. The performance can be a bada (big) - or chotta (small) khayāl.

 

Bada khayāl is a long elaborated performance which exists out of a vilambit laya composition and a chotta khayāl exists out of madhya laya (medium tempo) / drut laya (fast) composition(s). Vilambit laya is a slow paced  rhythm, during the vilambit composition the vocalist elaborates on the ālāp. When the ālāp is performed during  the composition it is called bol ālāp. After having finished the ālāp, the Layakāri will be introduced. The  layakāri will be followed by tānas, tānas are fast melodic phrases.

The structure of the vilambit laya composition is concluded after the short elaboration of tānas. The vilambit composition will be followed by a madhya laya / drut laya composition(s). The Madhya - and drut laya  compositions consist out of the sthayi and antara, these are the lines of the composition describe the picture of  the drama or mood of the performed rāga. These lines are theme of the melody where the musician can fall back  on after each improvisation. In the madhya and drut compositions are the tānas dominant. In khayāl also  taranas are sung which are compositions with syllables such as: Yalali, Darina, Derena. Taranas exist in madhya and drut laya but are more used in the final part of the presentation of the rāga because the use of syllables also gives opportunity to focus more on rhythmic virtuosity than melody.

Tantakāri
The Tantrikari has developed towards a Khayal performance however the formal structure is based on Dhrupad. Usually the instrumentalist would build a progression of Alap, Jod and Jhala like in a Dhrupad performance but in the instrumental style embellishments of Khayal are integrated. The compositions in instrumental music however are  based on Khayal compositions. The difference between a khayal and an instrumental performance would be that the instrumental format usually would add a more technical progression as the improvisation is not made with the poetic lyrics and syllables but with the strokes so it becomes more of an interlocking game of improvisation between the soloist and the tabla player.

As the instrumental form has evolved in the last half century there is now a development called "gayaki ang" which is applied in the instrumental form which leans more towards the full structure of a khayal performance. The structures and melodious techniques of khayal would dominate the formal structure of the performance.

 

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